Wildlife Biology in Practice, Vol 6, No 2 (2010)

Wildl. Biol. Pract., 2010; 6(2); 127-143;

Open Access Policy
Online ISSN: 1646-2742
http://dx.doi.org/10.2461/wbp.2010.6.10
Copyright © 2010 Peterson, Hansen, Peterson, Peterson.
Published by: Portuguese Wildlife Society

Creative Commons License This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The electronic version of this article can be found at:
http://socpvs.org/journals/index.php/wbp/article/view/10.2461-wbp.2010.6.10

How hunting strengthens social awareness of coupled human-natural systems

  • M. Peterson *
    Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Box 7646, Raleigh, U.S.A.
  • H. Hansen *
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
  • M. Peterson *
    Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, U.S.A
  • T. Peterson *
    Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, U.S.A.

Abstract


Hunting has the potential to remind modern societies of their reliance on natural systems. As a material and symbolic practice that motivates both hunters and non-hunters to certain actions relative to nature, hunting enables society to experience itself and nature differently than it could if humans no longer hunted. Although hunting may be anachronistic in modern society, certain dimensions of hunting culture may enable society to re-collect a sense of human integration with nature. In this essay, we develop a critical perspective grounded in neo-Marxist and Durkheimian theory to analyze how hunting may contribute to linking humans and nature by rendering the materiality of food production explicit, and how hunting culture strengthens the symbolic meaning of food in ways that are rooted in its materiality. We trace this potential through the practices of searching, killing, processing, and consuming food obtained via hunting. Along the way, we note how technology, both formal and informal social control, and commoditization may constrain hunting’s potential to highlight linkages between human and natural systems.


Printer Friendly HTML PDF

Keywords

Durkheim; food production; hunting; Marx; nature; sustainability.

References

Five "key references", selected by the authors, are marked below (Three recommended () and two highly recommended () papers).

  • 1. Busch, L. 1996. Bringing nature back in: Principles for a new social science of nature. Centennial Review 40: 491-501.
  • 2. Leopold, A. 1949. A sand county almanac and sketches here and there. Oxford University Press, London, United Kingdom.
  • 3. World Commission on Environment and Development. 1987. Our common future. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
  • 4. Liu, J.G., Dietz, T., Carpenter, S.R., Folke, C., Alberti, M., Redman, C.L., Schneider, S.H., Ostrom, E., Pell, A.N., Lubchenco, J., Taylor, W.W., Ouyang, Z.Y., Deadman, P., Kratz, T., & Provencher, W. 2007. Coupled human and natural systems. Ambio 36: 639-649.
    DOI: 10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36%5B639:CHANS%5D2.0.CO;2
  • 5. Latour, B. 2004. Politics of nature: How to bring the sciences into democracy. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
  • 6. Harvey, D. 1989. The condition of postmodernity: An enquiry into the origins of cultural change: Blackwell Publishers, Malden, Massachusetts, USA.
  • 7. Pergams, O.R.W. & Zaradic P.A. 2006. Is love of nature in the US becoming love of electronic media? 16-year downtrend in national park visits explained by watching movies, playing video games, internet use, and oil prices. Journal of Environmental Management 80: 387-393.
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.02.001
  • 8. Pergams, O.R.W. & Zaradic P.A. 2008. Evidence for a fundamental and pervasive shift away from nature-based recreation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 2295-2300.
    DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0709893105
  • 9. Peterson, M.J., Hall, D.M., Feldpausch-Parker, A.M., & Peterson, T.R. 2010. Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept. Conservation Biology 24:113-119.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01305.x
  • 10. Schnaiberg, A. 1980. The environment. Oxford University Press, New York, USA.
  • 11. Louv, R. 2005. Last child in the woods: Saving our children from nature deficit disorder. Algonquin Books, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
  • 12. Andrews, L. 2000. Weird science. Chicago Magazine August 2000, pp. 22–24.
  • 13. Hann, C. 2007. A new double movement? Anthropological perspectives on property in the age of neolibleralism. Socio-Economic Review 5: 287-318.
    DOI: 10.1093/ser/mwl027
  • 14. Reichhardt, T. 2000. Will souped up salmon sink or swim? Nature 406: 10-12.
    DOI: 10.1038/35017657
  • 15. Hudson, I. & Hudson, M. 2003. Removing the veil? Commodity fetishism, fair trade, and the environment. Organization & Environment 16: 413-430.
    DOI: 10.1177/1086026603258926
  • 16. Shiva, V. 1999. Stolen harvest: The hijacking of the global food supply. South End Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
  • 17. Gouveia, L. & Juska, A. 2002. Taming nature, taming workers: Constructing the separation between meat consumption and meat production in the U.S. Sociologia Ruralis 42: 370-390.
    DOI: 10.1111/1467-9523.00222
  • 18. Regan, T. 1983. The case for animal rights. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.
  • 19. Marx, K. 1976. Capital vol. 1. Random House, New York, USA.
  • 20. Elling, B. 2008. Rationality and the environment: Decision-making in environmental politics and assessment. Earthscan, Sterling, Virginia, USA.
  • 21. Giddens, A. 1998. Conversations with Anthony Giddens: Making sense of modernity. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA.
  • 22. Megarry, T. 1995. Society in prehistory: The origins of human culture. University Press, New York.
  • 23. Geist, V., Mahoney, S.P., & Organ, J.F. 2001. Why hunting has defined the North American model of wildlife conservation. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 66: 175–185.
  • 24. Heberlein, T.A. & Ericsson, G. 2005. Ties to the countryside: Accounting for urbanites attitudes toward hunting, wolves, and wildlife. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 10: 213-227.
    DOI: 10.1080/10871200591003454
  • 25. Heberlein, T.A. & Willebrand, T. 1998. Les attitudes envers la chasse: Une comparaison entre la Suede et les Etats-Unis. [Attitudes toward hunting across time and continents: The United States and Sweden]. Gibier Faune Sauvage, 15: 1071-1080.
  • 26. FACE. 2007-2008. Annual Report. Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation of the EU. Available: http://www.face-europe.org/Documents/Annual%20Report,%2007-08.FIN.pdf
  • 27. U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Department of Commerce. 2007. 2006 national survey of fishing, hunting, and wildlife-associated recreation. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., USA.
  • 28. Decker, D.J., Provencher, R.W., & Brown, T.L. 1984. Antecedents to hunting participation: An exploratory study of the social-psychological determinants of initiation, continuation, and desertion in hunting. Department of Natural Resources, Outdoor Recreation Research Unit Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.
  • 29. Hansen, H.P. 2001. 'Jagt i Danmark år 2000' – Analyserapport ('Hunting in Denmark year 2000, Analysis'): Department of Environment, Technology and Social Studies, Roskilde University, Denmark.
  • 30. Hansen, H.P. 2008. Jagtforskning [Hunting research]. Jæger [Hunter]: Jagt, Vildt & Natur. 30-33.
  • 31. Peterson, T.R. 1997. Sharing the Earth: The rhetoric of sustainable development. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.
  • 32. Dizard, J.E. 2003. Mortal stakes: Hunters and hunting in contemporary America. University of Massachusetts Press Boston, USA.
  • 33. Peterson, M. N. 2004. An approach for demonstrating the social legitimacy of hunting. Wildlife Society Bulletin 32: 310-321.
    DOI: 10.2193/0091-7648(2004)32%5B310:AAFDTS%5D2.0.CO;2
  • 34. Swan, J.A. 1995. In defense of hunting. Harper, San Francisco, California, USA.
  • 35. Goodman, D. & DuPuis, E. M. 2002. Knowing food and growing food: Beyond the production-consumption debate in the sociology of agriculture. Sociologia Ruralis 42: 5-22.
    DOI: 10.1111/1467-9523.00199
  • 36. Ateljevic, I. & Doorne, S. 2003. Culture, economy and tourism commodities: Social relations of production and consumption. Tourist Studies 3: 123-141.
    DOI: 10.1177/1468797603041629
  • 37. Pilcher, J.M. 1998. Que vivan los tamales!: Food and the making of Mexican identity. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, USA.
  • 38. Raynolds, L.T. 2000. Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements. Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297.
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1007608805843
  • 39. Watson, J. L. 1997. Golden arches east: McDonald's in East Asia. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, USA.
  • 40. Durkheim, E. 1995. The elementary forms of religious life. Simon & Schuster, New York, USA.
  • 41. Posewitz, J. 2004. Rifle in hand: How wild America was saved. Riverbend, Helena, Montana, USA.
  • 42. Posewitz, J. 1999. Inherit the hunt: A journey into the heart of American hunting. Falcon, Helena, Montana, USA.
  • 43. Cahoone, L. 2009. Hunting as a moral good. Environmental Values 18: 67-89.
    DOI: 10.3197/096327109X404771
  • 44. McGuane, T. 2009. "A novelist takes aim", in Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition vol. Vol. 253 Issue 72, p. W9.
  • 45. Merchant, C. 2003. Reinventing Eden: The fate of nature in western culture. Routledge, New York, USA.
  • 46. Cassel, J. Ed., 2008. The gigantic book of hunting stories. Skyhorse Publishing, New York, USA.
  • 47. Petersen, O. & Perto, J. 2003. Pas på lapperne [Watch out for the paws]. Jæger - Jagt, Vildt & Natur [Hunter- Hunting, wildlife & Nature] 12: 94-101.
  • 48. Rosenkrantz, N.I. 2003. Et plettet lyn [The spotted lightning]. Jæger - Jagt, Vildt & Natur [Hunter- Hunting, wildlife & Nature] 12: 104-109.
  • 49. Wegner, T. 2003. Storoksen fra Wulik River [The big ox from Wulik River]. Jæger - Jagt, Vildt & Natur [Hunter- Hunting, wildlife & Nature] 12: 100-104.
  • 50. Bischof, R., Fujita, R., Zedrosser, A., Söderberg, A., & Swenson, J.E. 2008. Hunting patterns, ban on baiting, and harvest demographics of brown bears in Sweden. Journal of Wildlife Management 72: 79-88.
    DOI: 10.2193/2007-149
  • 51. Minnis, D.L. 1998. Wildlife policy-making by the electorate: An overview of citizen-sponsored ballot measures on hunting and trapping. Wildlife Society Bulletin 26: 75-83.
  • 52. White, P.C.L., Newton-Cross, G.A., Moberly, R.L., Smart, J.C.R., Baker, P.J., & Harris, S. 2003. The current and future management of wild mammals hunted with dogs in England and Wales. Journal of Environmental Management: 67: 187-197.
    DOI: 10.1016/S0301-4797(02)00225-6
  • 53. Conover, M.R. 2002. Resolving human-wildlife conflicts: The science of wildlife damage management. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  • 54. Kozicky, E.L. & Madson, J. 1966. Shooting preserve management: The Nilo system. Winchester Western Press, East Alton, Illinois, USA.
  • 55. Hedegaard F. & Hansen, H.P. 1997. Hjorte, hegn & holdninger [Deer, fences & attitudes]. Roskilde, Denmark: Rapportserien, TEK-SAM Forlaget.
  • 56. Murray, D. 2002. Why wildlife management departments don't like game farms. Available: <http://www.wapiti.net/news/default2.cfm?articleID=96>
  • 57. Hunting Texas Style. 2009. En annorlunda jakt. Jakt och fritidsbutik. Available: <http://www.vildsvin.se/texashunt.htm>
  • 58. Cooper, D.W. & Herbert, C.W. 2001. Genetics, biotechnology and population management of over-abundant mammalian wildlife in Australasia. Reproduction Fertility and Development 13: 451-458.
    DOI: 10.1071/RD01072
  • 59. MacLean, R.A., Mathews, N.E., Grove, D,M., Frank, E.S., & Paul-Murphy, J. 2006. Surgical technique for tubal ligation in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 37: 354-360.
    DOI: 10.1638/05-091.1
  • 60. Ramsey, D. 2007. Effects of fertility control on behavior and disease transmission in brushtail possums. Journal of Wildlife Management 71: 109-116.
    DOI: 10.2193/2005-699
  • 61. Fraker, M.A., Brown, R.G., Gaunt, G.E., Kerr, J.A., & Pohajdak, B. 2002. Long-lasting, single-dose immunocontraception of feral fallow deer in British Columbia. Journal of Wildlife Management 66: 1141-1147.
    DOI: 10.2307/3802946
  • 62. Perdok, A.A., deBoer, W.F., & Stout, T.A.E. 2007. Prospects for managing African elephant population growth by immunocontraception: A review. Pachyderm 42: 97-107.
  • 63. Schwartz, J.A., Warren, R.J., Henderson, D.W., Osborn, D.A., & Kesler, D.J. 1997. Captive and field tests of a method for immobilization and euthanasia of urban deer. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25: 532-541.
  • 64. Williams, S.C., DeNicola, A.J., & Ortega, I.M. 2008. Behavioral responses of white-tailed deer subjected to lethal management. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 86: 1358-1366.
    DOI: 10.1139/Z08-126
  • 65. Swedish Hunters Association. 2009. Hellre giftgas än jakt I Holland [Rather gassing than hunting in Holland]. Svensk Jakt Nyheter 10.
  • 66. Colangelo, L.L. 2009. Their goose is cooked! City to kill at least 2,000 geese near LaGuardia, JFK over bird strike fears. New York Daily News, New York, USA.
  • 67. Verburg, G. 2007. Letter of 8 August to De Voorzitter van de Tweede Kamer, der Staten-Generaal, Postbus 20018, 2500 EA 's-GRAVENHAGE from Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit, Holland, 11 August 2008.
  • 68. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 2007. North Carolina Hunter Education Manual. Kalkomey Enterprises, Dallas, Texas, USA.
  • 69. Texas Parks & Wildlife Department. 2006. Hunter education program: Instructor manual vol. III. Texas Parks & Wildlife Department, Austin, USA.
  • 70. Ortega y Gasset, J. 1985. Meditations on hunting. Scribner, New York, USA.
  • 71. Shepard, P. 1973. The tender carnivore and the sacred game. Scribner, New York, USA.
  • 72. Luke, B. 2007. Brutal: Manhood and the exploitation of animals. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, USA.
  • 73. Brekk, L.P. 2009. August 21. Ǻpning av Nasjonalt Elgsenter Gravberget Gård. Landbruks- Og Matdepartmenten (Ministry of Agriculture and Food). Available: <http://www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/lmd/aktuelt/taler_artikler/ministeren/landbruks--og-matminister-lars-peder-bre/2009/apningen-av-nasjonalt-elgsenter-gravberg.html?id=573237>
  • 74. Eisemann, J.D., Fagerstone, K.A., & O'Hare, J.R. 2006. Wildlife contraceptives: A regulatory hot potato. Vertebrate Pest Conference 22: 63-66.
  • 75. Nordic Hunter's Cooperation. 2009. Nordic hunting: Securing nature and wildlife for coming generations. Retrieved August 27, 2009, from http://www.nordichunters.org/page374.aspx.
  • 76. Dickson, J.G. 2001. Wildlife of southern forests: Habitat & management. Blaine, WA: Hancock House, 2001.
  • 77. Davis, S.L. 2003. The least harm principle may require that humans consume a diet containing large herbivores, not a vegan diet. Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 16: 387-394.
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1025638030686